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Laser Spectroscopy for Atmospheric and Environmental Sensing
Population differences in LT 50 were correlated with the mean minimum temperature of the coldest month at the seed source Fig. The ranking of populations according to LT 50 was similar for needles and stems. Error bars indicate standard errors of the mean values. The relationship between the LT 50 of the needles black circles or stems grey circles and the mean minimum temperature of the coldest month Tmin for the population origin is depicted.
Environmental factors site , winter , site x winter contributed to the phenotypic variation in photochemical parameters to a greater degree than did genetic sources of variation Pop , Fam ; Table 7 and 8. This finding is consistent with Baquedano et al. The authors found that phenotypic plasticity blurred the ecotypic divergence of fluorescence traits, which could hide differences among P. The sensitivity of P. Genetic variation in P. There was greater intra-population variation than inter-population variation. Population variation was displayed exclusively at the xeric site. This finding is in line with a previous study  and suggests that population differentiation  and population selection  take place under adverse conditions.
Measurements under favorable growing conditions in common garden experiments overcome the problem of confounding environmental effects with genotypic differences. However, some differences in physiological traits among genotypes that reflect adaptation to their climate of origin may be appreciated only when plants are exposed to stress. Population differences at the xeric site could be related to the higher cumulative radiation, lower precipitation and more extreme temperatures of the site Fig. This is consistent with the results of Colom et al. Aranda et al. The low variation in the photochemical parameters attributed to the population effects found in this experiment is in agreement with Lopez et al.
Nevertheless, the small but highly significant population differences in photochemical performance that were expressed at the XE were related to the climatic origin of the seed source. The Arenas population, originally from a location in interior and continental Spain with extreme maximum and minimum temperatures, displayed lower thermal energy dissipation NPQ in both winters. Differences among populations in needle LT 50 were consistent with the minimum temperatures of their climate of origin.
This is in accordance with Climent et al. We observed less freezing damage in the Tamrabta and Arenas populations, which are from continental climates, than in Mimizan and Oria , which are from coastal climates, reflecting adaptation to the ecological niches provided by the original climates. These results are consistent with similar studies in other coastal and interior conifer populations .
Even though the populations do not experience these minima temperatures at their sites of origin, this is useful information for possible reforestations in northern and colder latitudes in the future. The LT 50 of the cortical bark chlorenchyma was more variable higher standard errors than needle LT Plant material subjected to a range of freezing temperatures either escapes damage or is completely killed, and only a narrow range of temperatures induce partial damage.
The maritime pine, as a Mediterranean conifer, must survive fluctuations in temperature, water soil availability, vapor deficits and high light irradiance during the year.
The regulation of the electron transport processes by both environmental and genetic mechanisms is an advantage for the species. This study documents genetic variation in fluorescence traits, both between and within populations, but mostly within populations. However, variation due to environmental conditions accounted for the major proportion of the total variance.
Although we found highly significant differences between families, most of the genetic variation was due to the interaction between family x environment site , winter , site x winter. Further research is needed before considering intra-specific selection for photochemical efficiency in P.
The investigation of a large number of genotypes over a wide range of environments in field tests would be necessary to understand the genes that regulate photosynthetic processes that can be monitored by chlorophyll fluorescence and their effects on survival and growth. The identification of quantitative relationships between abiotic stresses and photochemical activity could be useful to assess the plasticity of families and populations and for developing selection criteria for abiotic stress tolerance.
In this work, we found that there is a potential for the selection of more frost tolerant Pinus pinaster populations, which is an advantage for a species that have to survive in unpredictable environments, especially in continental areas or at high altitudes. We provide evidence for P. All necessary permits were obtained for the described field studies. Permissions required for field studies were obtained from the Environmental Departments of the Autonomous Governments of Aragon and Galicia.
The range of Pinus pinaster Ait. This relatively small area covers a wide range of climates, from arid to humid conditions, and altitudes from sea level up to m. It is a species widely used in Spanish reforestation programs and for tree breeding.
Environmental Photochemistry Part II | Pierre Boule | Springer
Its highly fragmented distribution is explained by the discontinuity and high altitudes of the mountain ranges in southwestern Europe, which led to the isolation of geographically close populations and to several adaptations for growth and survival in distinct climates . Open-pollinated siblings individuals with one parent in common and the other parent unknown were collected in natural stands of maritime pine in France, Spain and Morocco, and the seedlings were grown in nurseries. Progeny trials were established throughout Spain. Sites were chosen to compare tree behavior under contrasting temperature and precipitation regimes.
The ME is situated near the Atlantic Ocean, with a wetter and milder climate than the XE , which is continental with lower winter temperatures. Both sites undergo drought during the summer. The plots were blocked by their position on the slope.
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We selected three populations from each of the trial sites Arenas , central Spain; Oria , southeast Spain; Mimizan , southwest coast of France to test the photochemical parameters during the winters of and For the freeze test, we added the Moroccan Tamrabta population and measured 4 populations from the continental site XE exclusively. Location and climatic data for the trial sites and populations are presented in Figure 2 and Table 1. At XE , physiological measurements were performed, contingent on the availability of plant material.
Weather conditions limited the number of measurements at the ME. We collected data from 3 populations, evaluating 6 to 10 families per population and 4 to 8 trees per family.