One method of developing this skill is to have students use their understanding of a particular unit to generate potential solutions for real-world problems. This principle details empirically based strategies that will help students more effectively encode learned materials into long-term memory. In addition to those in the memory unit, examples from this principle can help inform instruction throughout the course. By issuing formative assessment frequently through practice problems, activities and sample tests, instructors can help students increase their knowledge, skills and confidence.
Additionally, instructors conducting practice activities at spaced intervals distributed practice will help students achieve greater increases in long-term retrieval ability. Practice tests should include open-ended questions that require both the retrieval of existing knowledge and the challenge of applying that information to new situations or contexts, thus also incorporating principle four. See also the APA teaching module on practice for knowledge acquisition.
This principle highlights the importance of instructor responses and indicates the best manner in which to deliver feedback to students in order to maintain or increase motivation to learn. Providing students with clear, explanatory and timely feedback is important for learning. Self-regulation skills, including attention, organization, self-control, planning and memory strategies, improve learning and engagement and can be taught through direct instruction, modeling and classroom organization.
Teachers can model organizational methods and assist students by highlighting learning targets at the start and conclusion of lessons, using classroom calendars, highlighting difficult concepts that will require more practice, breaking large projects into manageable components, using well designed rubrics and allowing sufficient processing time through questioning, summarizing and practice.
Psychology students can apply this research to their own study habits such as learning to practice self-control by limiting the distractions presented by cell phones and social media. Students can also be encouraged to design experiments related to the limits of attention and discuss the practical implications of their results. Creativity is considered a critical skill for the technology driven world of the 21st century and because it is not a stable trait, it can be taught, nurtured and increased.
This principle describes specific methods of structuring assignments to increase creativity and ideas for how to model creative problem solving. Creativity in the psychology classroom can include opportunities for student-designed research projects, video projects, demonstrations and model building.
Students who are motivated and interested in learning are more successful.
CPSE has outlined the most important ways to help increase student motivation and engagement. Students tend to enjoy learning and to do better when they are more intrinsically rather than extrinsically motivated to achieve.
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This principle is directed at how instructors can increase intrinsic motivation through classroom practices and activities that support the fundamental need of students to feel autonomous. It is important to note that not everything of importance is intrinsically motivating to all students and that there is a place for extrinsic motivation in education. During the unit on motivation, when intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are typically discussed, students can examine their personal motivations and how they influence their success.
Lastly, students can examine the research related to the overjustification effect, also discussed in this principle. For more information about motivation and the over-justification effect and how they impact student performance, see the TED talk by psychologist Dan Pink. Students persist in the face of challenging tasks and process information more deeply when they adopt mastery goals rather than performance goals. Students who form mastery goals are focused on attaining new skills or increasing existing ability, but students who develop performance goals typically are focused simply on showing adequate ability.
When students set performance goals, they have a tendency to avoid tasks that might expose weaknesses and end up missing opportunities that would foster the development of new skills. Those with mastery goals are more likely to be motivated to learn new skills and achieve higher levels of competence.
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Principle 10 provides specific methods for organizing instruction that can be used to help students choose mastery over performance goals although under certain circumstances such as competitions, performance goals may be more appropriate. Psychological research has uncovered ways for teachers to communicate high expectations for all students and avoid creating negative self-fulfilling prophecies.
When discussing self-fulfilling prophecies and the Rosenthal and Jacobson study during the social psychology unit, Principle 11 can be used by teachers to show students how they can prevent negative self-fulfilling prophecies. Setting goals that are short term proximal , specific and moderately challenging enhances motivation more than establishing goals that are long term distal , general and overly challenging.
This principle explains how students can use short-term proximal , specific and moderately challenging goals to increase self-efficacy and build toward larger goals.
Students should maintain a record of progress toward their goals which is monitored by both the student and the instructor. After students experience success with moderately challenging proximal goals, they will be more likely to become intermediate risk takers, which is one of the most significant attributes present in achievement-oriented individuals. As a result, they will be capable of achieving larger distal goals.
Tips based on this principle can easily be used to create engaging class assignments for the motivation unit in the introduction to psychology curriculum. Series: Essential readings in developmental psychology. Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Reviews Editorial reviews. Publisher Synopsis "a collection of interesting, albeit idiosyncratic, readings User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers.
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Psychology, Educational. Enseignement -- Aspect psychologique. Ontwikkeling psychologie Onderwijspsychologie. Linked Data More info about Linked Data. All rights reserved. Remember me on this computer. Cancel Forgot your password? Charles Desforges ; Richard Fox. Essential readings in developmental psychology. Print book : English View all editions and formats.
For more information about this research, please contact study author: Anne Castles. For a copy of the research article and access to other Psychological Science in the Public Interest research findings, please contact: Scott Sleek - Psychological scientists looking to apply for funding from the US National Science Foundation may be interested in upcoming January and February deadlines.
Teaching and Learning: The Essential Readings (Essential Readings in Developmental Psychology)
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